List of sports. Sportwiki кроссовки


List of sports - Wikipedia

The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category. There are many more sports to be added. This system has a disadvantage because some sports may fit in more than one category.

According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous sports and sporting games.[1]

Physical sports[edit]

Air sports[edit]

Archery[edit]

Members of the Gotemba Kyūdō Association demonstrate Kyūdō.

Ball-over-net games[edit]

Basketball family[edit]

Bat-and-ball (safe haven)[edit]

Awaiting a pitch: batter, catcher, and umpire in baseball

Baton twirling[edit]

Acro sports[edit]

Performance sports[edit]

Board sports[edit]

Sports that are played with some sort of board as the primary equipment.

Catch games[edit]

Climbing[edit]

Cycling[edit]

Sports using bicycles or unicycles.

Bicycle[edit]
Skibob[edit]
Unicycle[edit]

Combat sports: wrestling and martial arts[edit]

A combat sport is a competitive contact sport where two combatants fight against each other using certain rules of engagement.

Grappling[edit]
Striking[edit]
Mixed or hybrid[edit]
Weapons[edit]
Skirmish[edit]

Cue sports[edit]

Equine sports[edit]

Sports using a horse.

Fishing[edit]

Flying disc sports[edit]

[edit]

Golf[edit]

Gymnastics[edit]

Handball family[edit]

Hunting[edit]

Sometimes considered blood sports.

Ice sports[edit]

Kite sports[edit]

Mixed discipline[edit]

The three components of triathlon: swimming, cycling, running

Decathlon, heptathlon, and the pentathlons consist of ten, seven, and five component contests that are scored together using one points system.

Orienteering family[edit]

Pilota family[edit]

Racquet (or racket) sports[edit]

Racket sports are games in which players use rackets to hit a ball or other object.

Remote control[edit]

Rodeo-originated[edit]

Sports that have originated from rodeos in the old Western Americas.

Running[edit]

Sailing[edit]

Snow sports[edit]

Skiing[edit]
Sled sports[edit]

Shooting sports[edit]

Sports using a firearm.

Stacking[edit]

Stick and ball games[edit]

Hockey[edit]
Hurling and shinty[edit]
Lacrosse[edit]
Polo[edit]

Street sports[edit]

Tag games[edit]

Walking[edit]

Wall-and-ball[edit]

Games involving opponents hitting a ball against a wall/walls using a racket, or other piece of equipment, or merely gloved/barehanded.

Aquatic & paddle sports[edit]

These sports use water (a river, pool, etc.).

Canoeing[edit]
Kayaking[edit]
Rafting[edit]
Rowing[edit]
Other paddling sports[edit]
Aquatic ball sports[edit]
Surface[edit]
Underwater[edit]
Competitive swimming[edit]
Kindred activities[edit]
Subsurface and recreational[edit]
Diving[edit]

Weightlifting[edit]

Motorized sports[edit]

Auto racing[edit]
The start of a Formula One race in 2008
Motorboat racing[edit]
Motorcycle racing[edit]
ATV racing[edit]
ATV racing on a motocross track

Marker sports[edit]

Musical sports[edit]

Fantasy sports[edit]

Sports seen in movies, literature, video games, etc.

Other[edit]

Overlapping sports[edit]

Sports falling into two or more categories.

Mind sports[edit]

Requiring little or no physical exertion or agility, mind sports are often not considered true sports. Some mind sports are recognised by sporting federations. The following list is intended to represent anything that is likely to be referred to as a mind sport, not to argue their validity as sports.

Card games[edit]

Other[edit]

Speedcubing[edit]

Strategy board games[edit]

Competitive model sports[edit]

Different classification[edit]

Potentially other sports are listed here.

Air sports[edit]

Athletics (track and field)[edit]

Electronic sports[edit]

Sports played using electronic devices.

Endurance sports[edit]

Goal sports[edit]

Sports in which the method of scoring is through goals.

Skating sports[edit]

Snowsports[edit]

A snowboarder and a skier

See #Skiing

Strength sports[edit]

Sports mainly based on sheer power.

Table sports[edit]

Target sports[edit]

Sports where the main objective is to hit a certain target.

Team sports[edit]

Sports that involve teams.

Windsports[edit]

Sports which use the wind (apart from sailing):

Fictional sports[edit]

Miscellaneous sports[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

en.wikipedia.org

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Squash (sport) - Wikipedia

Squash Highest governing body First played Registered players Characteristics Contact Team members Mixed gender Type Equipment Venue Presence Country or region Olympic Paralympic

Two squash players on a squash court

World Squash Federation (WSF)
1830 at Harrow, London, England, United Kingdom
?
No
Singles or Doubles
Separate competitions (mixed sometimes in leagues)
Racket sport
Squash ball, squash racket, goggles
Indoor or outdoor (with glass court)
Worldwide (Strongest: Australia, Egypt, Malaysia, France, and the United Kingdom)
No, but it is recognized as a possible future Olympic sportMember of the ARISF
No

Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball. The players must alternate in striking the ball with their racket and hit the ball onto the playable surfaces of the four walls of the court.

The game was formerly called squash rackets, a reference to the "squashable" soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball used in its sister game rackets).

The governing body of Squash, the World Squash Federation (WSF) is recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), but the sport is not part of the Olympic Games, despite a number of applications. Supporters continue to lobby for its incorporation in a future Olympic program.

History[edit]

The use of stringed rackets is shared with tennis, which dates from the late sixteenth century, though is more directly descended from the game of rackets from England. In "rackets", instead of hitting over a net as in sports such as tennis, players hit a squeezable ball against walls.

Old and new style squash rackets

Squash was invented in Harrow School out of the older game rackets around 1830 before the game spread to other schools, eventually becoming an international sport. The first courts built at this school were rather dangerous because they were near water pipes, buttresses, chimneys, and ledges. The school soon built four outside courts. Natural rubber was the material of choice for the ball. Students modified their rackets to have a smaller reach to play in these cramped conditions.[1]

The rackets have changed in a similar way to those used in tennis. Squash rackets used to be made out of laminated timber.[2] In the 1980s, construction shifted to lighter materials (such as aluminium and graphite) with small additions of components like Kevlar, boron and titanium. Natural "gut" strings were also replaced with synthetic strings.[2]

In the 19th century the game increased in popularity with various schools, clubs and even private citizens building squash courts, but with no set dimensions. The first squash court in North America appeared at St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire in 1884. In 1904 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the earliest national association of squash in the world was formed as the United States Squash rackets Association, (USSRA), now known as U.S. Squash. In April 1907 the Tennis, rackets & Fives Association set up a sub committee to set standards for squash. Then the sport soon formed, combining the three sports together called “Squash”. In 1912, the RMS Titanic had a squash court in first class. The 1st-Class Squash Court was situated on G-Deck and the Spectators Viewing Gallery was on the deck above on F-Deck. To use the Court cost 50 cents in 1912. Passengers could use the court for 1 hour unless others were waiting. It was not until 1923 that the Royal Automobile Club hosted a meeting to further discuss the rules and regulations and another five years elapsed before the Squash rackets Association was formed to set standards for squash in Great Britain.[1]

Playing equipment[edit]

Standard rackets are governed by the rules of the game. Traditionally they were made of laminated wood (typically ash), with a small strung area using natural gut strings. After a rule change in the mid-1980s, they are now almost always made of composite materials or metals (graphite, Kevlar, titanium, boron) with synthetic strings. Modern rackets have maximum dimensions of 686 mm (27.0 in) long and 215 mm (8.5 in) wide, with a maximum strung area of 500 square centimetres (77.5 sq in). The permitted maximum weight is 255 grams (9.0 oz), but most have a weight between 90 and 150 grams (3–5.3 oz.).

Squash balls are between 39.5 and 40.5 mm in diameter, and have a weight of 23 to 25 grams.[3] They are made with two pieces of rubber compound, glued together to form a hollow sphere and buffed to a matte finish. Different balls are provided for varying temperature and atmospheric conditions and standards of play: more experienced players use slow balls that have less bounce than those used by less experienced players (slower balls tend to "die" in court corners, rather than "standing up" to allow easier shots). Depending on its specific rubber composition, a squash ball has the property that it bounces more at higher temperatures. Squash balls must be hit dozens of times to warm them up at the beginning of a session; cold squash balls have very little bounce. Small colored dots on the ball indicate its dynamic level (bounciness), and thus the standard of play for which it is suited. The recognized speed colors indicating the degree of dynamism are:

Color Speed (of Play) Bounce Player Level
Double yellow Extra Slow Very low Experienced
Yellow Slow Low Advanced
Red Medium High Medium
Blue Fast Very high Beginner/Junior

Some ball manufacturers such as Dunlop use a different method of grading balls based on experience. They still have the equivalent dot rating, but are named to help choose a ball that is appropriate for one's skill level. The four different ball types are Intro (Blue dot, 140% of Pro bounce), Progress (Red dot, 120% of Pro bounce), Competition (single yellow dot, 110% of Pro bounce) and Pro (double yellow dot).

The "double-yellow dot" ball, introduced in 2000, is the competition standard, replacing the earlier "yellow-dot" ball. There is also an "orange dot" ball for use at high altitudes.

Players wear comfortable sports clothing. In competition, men usually wear shorts and a T-shirt, tank top or a polo shirt. Women normally wear a skirt or skort and a T-shirt or a tank top, or a sports dress. The National Institutes of Health recommends wearing goggles with polycarbonate lenses.[4]

Many squash venues mandate the use of eye protection and some association rules require that all juniors and doubles players must wear eye protection.

The court[edit]

The squash court is a playing surface surrounded by four walls. The court surface contains a front line separating the front and back of the court and a half court line, separating the left and right hand sides of the back portion of the court, creating three 'boxes': the front half, the back left quarter and the back right quarter. Both the back two boxes contain smaller service boxes. The floor-markings on a squash court are only relevant during serves. The dimensions of this entire surface is

Squash Court Length: 9750 mm plus or minus 10 mm Squash Court Width: 6400 mm plus or minus 10 mm Squash Court Height: 5640 mm

Squash Court Diagonals: 11665 mm plus or minus 25 mm.[7]

There are four walls to a squash court. The front wall, on which three parallel lines are marked, has the largest playing surface, whilst the back wall, which typically contains the entrance to the court, has the smallest. The out line runs along the top of the front wall, descending along the side walls to the back wall. There are no other markings on the side or back walls. Shots struck above or touching the out line, on any wall, are out. The bottom line of the front wall marks the top of the 'tin', a half metre-high metal area which if struck means that the ball is out. In this way the tin can be seen as analogous to the net in other racket sports such as tennis. The middle line of the front wall is the service line and is only relevant during serves.

Game play[edit]

Service[edit]

The players spin a racket to decide who serves first. This player starts the first rally by electing to serve from either the left or right service box. For a legal serve, one of the server's feet must be in the service box, not touching any part of the service box lines, as the player strikes the ball. After being struck by the racket, the ball must strike the front wall above the service line and below the out line and land in the opposite back quarter court. The receiving player can choose to volley a serve after it has hit the front wall. If the server wins the point, the two players switch sides for the following point.

Play[edit]

After the serve, the players take turns hitting the ball against the front wall, above the tin and below the out line. The ball may strike the side or back walls at any time, as long as it hits below the out line. It must not hit the floor after hitting the racket and before hitting the front wall. A ball landing on either the out line or the line along the top of the tin is considered to be out. After the ball hits the front wall, it is allowed to bounce once on the floor (and any number of times against the side or back walls) before a player must return it. Players may move anywhere around the court but accidental or deliberate obstruction of the other player's movements is forbidden and could result in a let or a stroke. Players typically return to the centre of the court after making a shot.

Scoring systems[edit]

Squash scoring systems have evolved over time. One unusual system consists of sets of 11 points. If ever both players are on 10-10, then the game continues until there is 2 points difference between them. Players can decide how many sets they want to do. This scoring system is called the "Florian's System". However, in recent times with the popularization of squash as an international sport, the Professional Squash Association (PSA) standard match consists of a best-of-5 sets with each set being decided by the first player to reach 11 points (keeping in mind the 2 point differential as cited above).

English scoring[edit]

The original scoring system is known as English scoring, also called hand-out scoring. Under this system, if the server wins a rally, they receive a point, while if the returner wins rally, only the service changes (i.e., the ball goes "hand-out") and no point is given. The first player to reach 9 points wins the game. However, if the score reaches 8–8, the player who was first to reach 8 decides whether the game will be played to 9, as before (called "set one"), or to 10 (called "set two"). At one time this scoring system was preferred in Britain, and also among countries with traditional British ties, such as Australia, Canada, Pakistan, South Africa, India and Sri Lanka.

Point-a-rally scoring[edit]

The current official scoring system for all levels of professional and amateur squash is called point-a-rally scoring (PARS). In PARS, the winner of a rally always receives a point, regardless of whether they were the server or returner. Games are played to 11, but in contrast to English scoring, players must win by two clear points. That is, if the score reaches 10–10, play continues until one player wins by two points. PARS to 11 is now used on the men's and women's professional tour, and the tin height has been lowered by two inches (to 17 inches) for all PSA events (men's and women's).

American scoring[edit]

Another scoring system is American scoring. The rules of American scoring are identical to PARS, apart from games are played to 15. This system is not widely used because games were considered to last too long and the winner would usually be the fitter player, not necessarily the better player.[8]

Competition matches are usually played to "best-of-five" (i.e. the first player to win three games)

Strategy and tactics[edit]

A key strategy in squash is known as "dominating the T" (the intersection of the red lines near the centre of the court, shaped like the letter "T", where the player is in the best position to retrieve the opponent's next shot). Skilled players will return a shot, and then move back toward the "T" before playing the next shot. From this position, the player can quickly access any part of the court to retrieve the opponent's next shot with a minimum of movement and possibly maximising the movement required by the opponent to answer the returned shot.

A common strategy is to hit the ball straight up the side walls to the back corners; this is the basic squash shot, referred to as a "rail," straight drive, wall, or "length." After hitting this shot, the player will then move to the centre of the court near the "T" to be well placed to retrieve the opponent's return. Attacking with soft or "short" shots to the front corners (referred to as "drop shots") causes the opponent to cover more of the court and may result in an outright winner. Boasts or angle shots are deliberately struck off one of the side walls before the ball reaches the front. They are used for deception and again to cause the opponent to cover more of the court. Rear wall shots float to the front either straight or diagonally drawing the opponent to the front. Advantageous tactical shots are available in response to a weak return by the opponent if stretched, the majority of the court being free to the striker.

Rallies between experienced players may involve 30 or more shots and therefore a very high premium is placed on fitness, both aerobic and anaerobic. As players become more skilled and, in particular, better able to retrieve shots, points often become a war of attrition. At higher levels of the game, the fitter player has a major advantage.

Ability to change the direction of ball at the last instant is also a tactic used to unbalance the opponent. Expert players can anticipate the opponent's shot a few tenths of a second before the average player, giving them a chance to react sooner.[9]

Depending on the style of play, it is common to refer to squash players[10][11] as

  • Power players: powerful shots to take time away from their opponent. For example, John White, Omar Mosaad.
  • Shot makers: accurate shots to take time away from their opponent. For example, Jonathon Power, Ramy Ashour, Amr Shabana, James Willstrop.
  • Retrievers: excellent retrieval to counter power and accuracy and to return shots more quickly to take time away from their opponent. For example, Peter Nicol, Grégory Gaultier.
  • Attritional players: a consistently high-paced game both from shot speed and running speed to wear their opponent down over time. For example, David Palmer, Nick Matthew, Jahangir Khan.

Interference and obstruction[edit]

Interference and obstruction are an inevitable aspect of this sport, since two players are confined within a shared space. Generally, the rules entitle players to a direct straight line access to the ball, room for a reasonable swing and an unobstructed shot to any part of the front wall. When interference occurs, a player may appeal for a "let" and the referee (or the players themselves if there is no official) then interprets the extent of the interference. The referee may elect to allow a let and the players then replay the point, or award a "stroke" to the appealing player (meaning that he is declared the winner of that point) depending on the degree of interference, whether the interfering player made an adequate effort to avoid interfering, and whether the player interfered with was likely to have hit a winning shot had the interference not occurred. An exception to all of this occurs when the interfering player is directly in the path of the other player's swing, effectively preventing the swing, in which case a stroke is always awarded.

When it is deemed that there has been little or no interference, or that it is impossible to say one way or the other, the rules provide that no let is to be allowed, in the interests of continuity of play and the discouraging of spurious appeals for lets. Because of the subjectivity in interpreting the nature and magnitude of interference, the awarding (or withholding) of lets and strokes is often controversial.

When a player's shot hits their opponent prior to hitting the front wall, interference has occurred. If the ball was travelling towards the side wall when it hit the opponent, or if it had already hit the side wall and was travelling directly to the front wall, it is usually a let. However, it is a stroke to the player who hit the ball if the ball was travelling straight to the front wall when the ball hit the opponent, without having first hit the side wall. Generally after a player has been hit by the ball, both players stand still; if the struck player is standing directly in front of the player who hit the ball he loses the stroke, if he is not straight in front, a let is played. If it is deemed that the player who is striking the ball is deliberately trying to hit his opponent, he will lose the stroke. An exception to all of this occurs when the player hitting the ball has "turned", i.e., let the ball pass him on one side, but then hit it on the other side as it came off the back wall. In these cases, the stroke goes to the player who was hit by the ball.

Referee[edit]

The referee is usually a certified position issued by the club or assigned squash league. The referee has dominant power over the squash players. Any conflict or interference is dealt with by the referee. The referee may also issue to take away points or games due to improper etiquette regarding conduct or rules. Refer to “Interference and Obstruction” for more detail. In addition the referee is usually responsible for the scoring of games. Nowadays, three referees are usually used in professional tournaments. The Central referee has responsibility to call the score and make decisions with the two side referees.

Cultural, social, and health aspects[edit]

There are several variations of squash played across the world. In the U.S. hardball singles and doubles are played with a much harder ball and different size courts (as noted above). Hardball singles has lost much of its popularity in North America (in favour of the International version), but the hardball doubles game is still active. There is also a doubles version of squash played with the standard ball, sometimes on a wider court, and a more tennis-like variation known as squash tennis.

The relatively small court and low-bouncing ball makes scoring points harder and rallies usually longer than in its American cousin, racketball, as the ball may be played to all four corners of the court. Since every ball must strike the front wall above the tin (unlike racketball), the ball cannot be easily "killed". Another difference between squash and racketball is the service game. Racketball allows for the entire back court (from 20-feet to 40-feet) to be used as a service return area; this makes returning serves much more challenging in racketball than squash. Racketball serves routinely exceed 140 mph (225 km/h) and are a crucial component of the game, similar to tennis.

Squash provides an excellent cardiovascular workout. In one hour of squash, a player may expend approximately 600 to 1000 food calories (3,000 to 4,000 kJ).[12] The sport also provides a good upper and lower body workout by exercising both the legs in running around the court and the arms and torso in swinging the racket. In 2003, Forbes rated squash as the number one healthiest sport to play.[12] However, some studies have implicated squash as a cause of possible fatal cardiac arrhythmia and argued that squash is an inappropriate form of exercise for older men with heart disease.[13]

Squash around the world[edit]

According to the World Squash Federation, as of June 2009, there were 49908 squash courts in the world, with 188 countries and territories having at least one court. England had the greatest number at 8,500. The other countries with more than 1,000 courts, in descending order by number were Germany, Egypt, the United States of America, Australia, South Africa, Canada, Malaysia, France, the Netherlands, and Spain. Today, The United States has the fastest growing squash participation. There are an estimated 20 million squash players worldwide.

In June 2009, there were players from nineteen countries in the top fifty of the men's world rankings, with England and Egypt leading with eleven each.[14] The women's world rankings featured players from sixteen countries, led by England with eleven.

The men's and women's Professional Squash Association tour, men's rankings and women's rankings are run by the Professional Squash Association (PSA).

The Professional Squash Tour is a tour based in the United States.[15]

Wider acceptance[edit]

Squash has been featured regularly at the multi-sport events of the Commonwealth Games and Asian Games since 1998. Squash is also a regular sport at the Pan American Games since 1995. Squash players and associations have lobbied for many years for the sport to be accepted into the Olympic Games, with no success to date. Squash narrowly missed being instated for the 2012 London Games and the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Games (missed out again as the IOC assembly decided to add golf and rugby sevens to the Olympic programme).[16] Squash also missed out as an event in the 2020 Olympic Games.[17] At the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, the IOC voted for Wrestling instead of Squash or Baseball/Softball. The usual reason cited for the failure of the sport to be adopted for Olympic competition is the difficulty of spectators to follow the action, especially via television.

Squash was accepted as a demonstration sport for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.[18] The World Squash Federation hopes that this inclusion will create a strong bid for a potential inclusion at the 2024 Summer Olympics.[19]

Players, records and rankings[edit]

Nicol David; currently ranked the number three female squash player in the world.

The (British) Squash Rackets Association (now known as England Squash) conducted its first British Open championship for men in December 1930, using a "challenge" system. Charles Read was designated champion in 1930, but was beaten in home and away matches by Don Butcher, who was then recorded as the champion for 1931. The championship continues to this day, but has been conducted with a "knockout" format since 1947.

The women's championship started in 1921, and has been dominated by relatively few players:[23]Joyce Cave, Nancy Cave, Cecily Fenwick (England) in the 1920s; Margot Lumb & Susan Noel (England) 1930s; Janet Morgan (England) 1950s; Heather McKay (Australia) 1960s and 1970s; Vicki Cardwell (Australia) and Susan Devoy (New Zealand) 1980s; Michelle Martin and Sarah Fitz-Gerald (Australia) 1990s and Nicol David (Malaysia) 2000s.

The Men's British Open has similarly been dominated by relatively few players:[23]F.D. Amr Bey (Egypt) in the 1930s; Mahmoud Karim (Egypt) in the 1940s; brothers Hashim Khan and Azam Khan (Pakistan) in the 1950s and 1960s; Jonah Barrington (Great Britain and Ireland) and Geoff Hunt (Australia) in the 1960s and 1970s, Jahangir Khan (Pakistan) 1980s ; Jansher Khan (Pakistan) in the 1990s and more recently, David Palmer and Nick Matthew.

The World Open (squash) was inaugurated in 1976 and serves as the main competition today. Jansher Khan holds the record of winning eight World titles followed by Jahangir Khan with six, Geoff Hunt & Amr Shabana four, Nick Matthew & Ramy Ashour three. The women's record is held by Nicol David with eight wins followed by Sarah Fitzgerald five, Susan Devoy four, and Michelle Martin three.

Heather McKay remained undefeated in competitive matches for 19 years (between 1962 and 1981) and won sixteen consecutive British Open titles between 1962 and 1977.[24]

Previous world number one Peter Nicol stated that he believed squash had a "very realistic chance" of being added to the list of Olympic sports for the 2016 Olympic Games,[25] but it ultimately lost out to golf and rugby sevens.

Current rankings[edit]

The Professional Squash Association (PSA) publishes monthly rankings of professional players: Dunlop PSA World Rankings.

Men's[edit]
PSA Men's World Rankings, of December 2017[26] Rank Player Tournaments Points Average
1  Grégory Gaultier (FRA) 11 16,505 1,651
2  Mohamed El Shorbagy (EGY) 12 14,710 1,429
3  Ali Farag (EGY) 12 12,650 1,209
4  Karim Abdel Gawad (EGY) 11 10,590 1,040
5  Marwan El Shorbagy (EGY) 13 8,225 761
6  Nick Matthew (ENG) 10 7,560 756
7  Tarek Momen (EGY) 14 8,645 724
8  Paul Coll (NZL) 13 6,705 608
9  Simon Rösner (GER) 12 6,235 571
10  James Willstrop (ENG) 12 5,905 554
Women's[edit]
PSA Women's World Rankings, of December 2017[27] Rank Player Tournaments Points Average
1  Nour El Sherbini (EGY) 8 12,605 1,576
2  Raneem El Weleily (EGY) 8 9,730 1,216
3  Camille Serme (FRA) 8 8,470 1,059
4  Laura Massaro (ENG) 9 8,390 1,049
5  Nouran Gohar (EGY) 8 6,340 793
6  Nicol David (MAS) 9 6,275 738
7  Sarah-Jane Perry (ENG) 9 5,890 713
8  Nour El Tayeb (EGY) 10 5,650 656
9  Joelle King (NZL) 10 4,950 571
10  Alison Waters (ENG) 10 4,250 492

Current Champions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Zug, James. "History of Squash". US Squash. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Grays of Cambridge: History" - makers of rackets and founded in 1855 by Henry John Gray, the Champion rackets Player of England. "In those days, the rackets were made from one piece English ash, with a suede leather grip and natural gut. ... The 1980s witnessed a period of re-structuring and consolidation. The Cambridge rackets factory was forced to close in face of the move to graphite rackets, and production was moved to the Far east."
  3. ^ "Squash Balls". Squashplayer.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  4. ^ "Sports, For Parents, Teachers and Coaches, National Eye Institute [NEI]". Nei.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-18. 
  5. ^ "Squash : Nick Matthew v James Wilstrop : 2011 Delaware Investments U.S. Squash Open". YouTube. 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2013-04-18. 
  6. ^ "Squash : Nick Matthew v James Wilstrop : 2011 Delaware Investments U.S. Open Squash". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-04-18. 
  7. ^ "Squash Court Construction: "How to build a Court?" - ASB SquashCourt". asbsquash.com. Retrieved 2017-04-25. 
  8. ^ http://squashclub.org/main/e-lessons/lessons/intermediate_lessons/faq/faq.shtml
  9. ^ "Agility Training: Improving Sporting Reaction Times". Pponline.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-18. 
  10. ^ Strategies, Jonathon Power Exposed DVD 2.
  11. ^ Commentary by Jonathon Power and Martin Heath, TOC, 2005
  12. ^ a b "Santelmann, N. 2003. Ten Healthiest Sports". Forbes.com. 2003-09-30. Retrieved 2012-02-26. 
  13. ^ "Heart rate and metabolic response to competitive squash in veteran players: identification of risk factors for sudden cardiac death", European Heart Journal, Volume 10, Number 11, Pp. 1029–1035, abstract
  14. ^ "Dan Ackman, "Egyptians Have Cornered the Squash Racket"". The Wall Street Journal, October 3, 2007. 3 October 2007. 
  15. ^ "Professional Squash Tour". Prosquashtour.net. Retrieved 2013-04-18. 
  16. ^ "Golf & rugby voted into Olympics". BBC.co.uk. October 9, 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  17. ^ "Squash Leads on 'Innovation' in Bid Presentation". World Squash Federation. 
  18. ^ "Buenos Aires 2018 take Youth Olympic Games to the next level with Squash". World Squash Federation. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2018. 
  19. ^ "El squash buscará ser parte de París 2024 con una exhibición innovadora en Buenos Aires 2018". buenosaires2018.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  20. ^ "Greatest player". Squashsite. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  21. ^ Jahangir injury hastens final exit, The Independent, 24 September 1992
  22. ^ Jahangir Khan hopes for squash's 2016 Olympic debut, Webindia123.com, 26 August 2008
  23. ^ a b "Championship records". Allam British Open Squash. 
  24. ^ "Squash NSW History". http://www.squash.org.au. Retrieved 11 March 2015. 
  25. ^ Slater, Matt (2007-03-23). "Squash 'deserves Olympic place', BBC article". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-02-26. 
  26. ^ "Current PSA World Rankings". psaworldtour.com. PSA World Tour, Inc. 
  27. ^ "Current PSA World Rankings". psaworldtour.com. WSA World Tour, Inc. 

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

en.wikipedia.org

Sport stacking - Wikipedia

Sport Stacking Highest governing body Nicknames First played Registered players Characteristics Contact Team members Mixed gender Type Equipment Presence Country or region Olympic

A 1-10-1 being upstacked as part of the cycle stack

World Sport Stacking Association
Cup stacking, speed stacking
1981, Oceanside, California, U.S.[1]
618,394 (number of worldwide participants in the Guinness World Record set in 2015)[2]
No
Individual, doubles, teams of 4 or 5
Yes, but usually in separate divisions
Indoor, Outdoor
Cups, mat, timer
Worldwide
AAU Junior Olympic Games

Sport stacking (also known as cup stacking or speed stacking) is an individual and team sport that involves stacking 9 or 12 specially designed cups in pre-determined sequences as fast as you can. The cups are specially designed to allow for faster times. Participants of sport stacking stack cups in specific sequences, by aligning the inside left lateral adjunct of each cup with that of the next. Sequences are usually pyramids of 3, 6, or 10 cups. Players compete against the clock or another player.

The governing body setting the rule is the World Sport Stacking Association (WSSA).[3]

History[edit]

While working for the Boys & Girls Club of Oceanside, California in 1981, Wayne Godinet came up with the idea for sport stacking. When the children he was working with were tired of playing traditional sports, he took paper cups and asked them to stack the cups as fast as they could. The sport was well received, so Godinet decided to acquire plastic cups to be used by his club. He quickly discovered that his new plastic cups would stick together, so Godinet modified the cups by adding a hole to the bottom of the cups. He formed his own company, Karango Cupstack Co., which manufactured and distributed these modified cups in a variety of colors. By the end of the decade, Godinet estimated he had sold approximately 25,000 sets of cups. During the 1980s, Godinet hosted the annual National Cupstacking Championship in Oceanside. One of the national champions was Matt Adame, a member of Godinet's club, the "Professional Cupstack Drill Team". In November 1990, Adame and his teammates were featured on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.[1][4][5]

After the sport received national attention on The Tonight Show, Bob Fox, a physical education teacher from Colorado, introduced stacking to his students. Fox's enthusiasm led to the creation of the annual Colorado state tournament in 1997. In 1998, Fox, together with Larry Goers, created a line of proprietary sport stacking products including the patented timing system known as the StackMat.[6] Fox started traveling across the country in 2000 to promote Speed Stacks full-time.[7][8] In 2001 Fox founded the World Cup Stacking Association (WCSA) to formalize the sport's rules and sanction competitions worldwide.[9] As the sport began to spread to neighboring states, the WCSA hosted the first Rocky Mountain Cup Stacking Championships, where Fox's daughter, Emily Fox, broke her own world record by completing the cycle in 7.43 seconds.[10] The next year, the first WCSA World Championship took place at the Denver Coliseum and has since been held annually. The WCSA formally titled the sport "sport stacking" and changed their name to the World Sport Stacking Association (WSSA) in 2005. The WSSA cited the public recognition that stacking is considered a sport as the reason for the name change.[11][12]

Equipment[edit]

Official sport stacking cups are specially designed to prevent sticking and to allow the competitor to go faster. The cups are reinforced with several ribs on the inside which separate the cups when they are nestled. The exterior's slightly textured to allow better grip. The insides are very smooth and slide past each other easily. The tops of the cups have 1-4 holes to allow ventilation so the cups do not stick. One special line of cups has cups without tops to further decrease air resistance.

One can purchase the specially designed "stacking mats", also called "stack mats," which are mats connected to a sensitive timer. These are used for official tournament timing, as well as casual play timing or practice timing.

Special weighted training cups, called "Super Stacks," are made from metal and are most commonly used directly before competing. The added weight is intended to make the regular cups feel lighter.[13]

There are three sequences stacked in official sport stacking events, that are defined by the rule book handed out by the WSSA:[14]

  • 3-3-3: Uses nine cups. This sequence consists of three sets of three cups each. The three sets must be stacked going from left-to-right or right-to-left, and then down-stacked into their original positions in the same order as the up-stack.
  • 3-6-3: Uses 12 cups. This sequence is similar to the 3-3-3, except a six stack replaces the three stack in the middle. Each pile of cups is stacked up from left-to-right or right-to-left, and the down-stack occurs in the same order.
  • Cycle: Uses 12 cups. This is a sequence of stacks in the following order: a 3-6-3 stack (see above), a 6-6 stack (two pyramids of six cups stacked up and down into one containing all twelve cups altogether) and a 1-10-1 stack (a pyramid of ten cups in the middle), finishing in a down stacked 3-6-3.

Common for all sequences are these major rules:[14]

  • You may not up-stack two pyramids at the same time, but in the down-stack, it is okay to touch two stacks at the same time.
  • If a stack is not completed correctly (such as when a cup or cups falls off the pyramid, considered a "fumble")[15] you must correct it immediately. The only exception to this rule is if the cups fall over during the down-stack. If this happens, the player may continue the down-stack normally and correct the fallen stack when you reach it.

There are three main categories of competing that WSSA-sanctioned tournaments offer:

  • Individual: Each competitor is allowed two warm-ups and three timed tries for each sequence. The best time for each sequence is recorded and compared with other competitors. In the case of a tie, the second-best times are used.
  • Doubles: Two competitors stand side-by-side to complete the stack, with one competitor using only his or her right hand while the other using only his or her left hand. The same rules for individuals apply here. The only official doubles event is the Cycle (with the exception of the "Special Stackers" category, where only the 3-6-3 is offered).
  • Relay: Four competitors take turns stacking at a table, switching when the preceding competitor crosses the foul line with at least one foot. The foul line is observed by a line judge, who decides whether or not this rule was followed. The 3-6-3 relay is the only official event; however, some tournaments offer head-to-head (best 2 out of 3) 3-6-3 and Cycle relays. There are no warm-ups in this event.<

Benefits[edit]

Proponents of the sport say participants learn cooperation, ambidexterity and hand–eye coordination.

A university study by Dr. Brian Udermann, currently at the University of Wisconsin-Lacrosse, confirms that stacking improves hand–eye coordination & reaction time by up to 30% (published in the scientific Journal "Perceptual & Motor Skills" in 2004)[16]

An EEG-study by Melanie A. Hart, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Health, Exercise and Sports Sciences at the Texas Tech University support the claim that cup stacking does utilize both sides of the brain. During the left-hand condition, activity in the right hemisphere was larger than the left, while for the right-hand task, the left hemisphere was greater than the right. Their scientific poster on that topic got awarded by the AAHPERD[17][18] On the other hand, Hart couldn't get the same results as Udermann when studying improvement on reaction time.[19]

Gibbons, E., Hendrick, J. L., & Bauer, J. State University of New York studied the effects on the reaction time and confirmed Udermann rather than Hart, stating "that the results agreed with the claims made by Speed Stacks, in which practicing cup stacking can improve reaction time.[20] They also state "Even 1 hour of cup stacking practice can improve reaction time in young adults." Speed stacking was also seen as helping people improve in other sports because it helps to improve the hand-eye coordination.

The Department of Kinesiology of the Towson University, Towson, MD studied the influence of participation in a 6-week bimanual coordination program on Grade 5 students' reading achievement with Sports Stacking being the bimanual activity. A significant increase was found for the experimental group on Comprehension skills, proving once and for all that Sports Stacking may improve students' reading comprehension skills, regardless of sex. Published June 2007.[21]

In 2007 Cupstacking itself[clarification needed] was tested in a study at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas.[22]

Competition[edit]

Rachael Nedrow with a trophy from the 2009 Oregon Sport Stacking Championships

Most sport stacking competitions are geared toward children, with for ages 18 and under. There are also divisions for "Special Stackers" (disabled competitors).

The WSSA has set the following protocol for the setting of world records:[23]

  1. Must use WSSA-approved sport stacking cups.
  2. Must use a StackMat and tournament display.
  3. Must be video taped for review and verification purposes.
  4. Must use 3 judges (one designated Head Judge) to judge each try. After each try the 3 judges confer. The head judge will then designate with a color-coded card the outcome of that try. (Green-clean run, yellow-try in question (immediate video review) & red–scratch.)
  5. A finals judge may not be a family member or the sport stacking instructor of the stacker.

The competition's divided into 12 different age divisions, ranging from 6 & under to seniors (60 & up). State, national & world records are recorded on the WSSA website.

World records[edit]

Male[edit]

Event Time Stacker
3-3-3 1.335  Hyeong Jong Choi (KOR)
3-6-3 1.746  Hyeon Jong Choi (KOR)
Cycle 4.813  William Orrell (USA)

Female[edit]

Event Time Stacker
3-3-3 1.424  Si Eun Kim (KOR)
3-6-3 1.852  Si Eun Kim (KOR)
Cycle 5.089  Si Eun Kim (KOR)

Combined[edit]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ a b Filippe, Lynn (1990-12-20). "In Their Cups and Proud of It". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
  2. ^ "2015 WSSA STACK UP!". World Sport Stacking Association. 2015-11-12. Retrieved 2015-11-25. 
  3. ^ World Sport Stacking Association (The WSSA)
  4. ^ Manna, Marcia (2009-07-04). "Cup-stackers to try their hands at event". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Oceanside. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
  5. ^ Ellis, Jeff (2008-11-12). "Cup stacking, street credibility". The Daily Barometer. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  6. ^ US Patent 6940783, "Mat for timing competitions", published 2005-09-06, assigned to Speed Stacks, Inc. 
  7. ^ "History of Sport Stacking". Speed Stacks - The Official Cup of the World Sport Stacking Association (Sport Stacking). Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  8. ^ Sefton, Dru (2004-11-29). "Cup stacking benefits add up". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  9. ^ Cathy, Proctor (2009-09-09). "Speed stacking a sport? Revenue keeps growing". Denver Business Journal. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  10. ^ Wlazelek, Ann (2006-04-02). "Hoping their cups don't falleth over". The Morning Call. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 
  11. ^ "About the WSSA". World Sport Stacking Association (The WSSA). Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  12. ^ "The 2006 WSSA World Sport Stacking Championships Draw the Fastest Competitors from around the World; Over 1,000 Competitors Set to Compete in the Ultimate Sport Stacking Championship" (Press release). 2006-04-03. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 
  13. ^ Speed Stacks
  14. ^ a b Official rule Book of the World Sport Stacking Association, Version 5.0 as released in 2009, http://www.worldsportstackingassociation.org/tournament_guide/tg09/WSSA%20Rule%20Book%20v%205.0.pdf
  15. ^ http://www.speedstacks.com/about/lingo.php
  16. ^ Edermann, Brian; Mayer, John; Murray, Steven; Sagendorf, Kenneth (2004). "Influence of Cup Stacking on Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time of Second-Grade Students" (PDF). Perceptual and Motor Skills. Ammons Scientific. 98 (2): 409–14. Retrieved 2015-07-04. 
  17. ^ Texas Tech University:: Health, Exercise and Sports Sciences, HESS - Melanie Hart
  18. ^ Brain Activation Patterns During Participation in Cup Stacking (Motor Behavior)
  19. ^ Hart, Melanie; DeChant, Ann; Smith, Lori (2005). "Influence of Participation in a Cup-Stacking Unit on Timing Tasks" (PDF). Perceptual and Motor Skills. Ammons Scientific. 101 (1): 869–76. doi:10.2466/PMS.101.7.869-876. Retrieved 2015-07-04. 
  20. ^ http://facultyweb.cortland.edu/hendrick/aahperdposter%20-%20S07.pdf
  21. ^ Uhrich TA, Swalm RL: A pilot study of a possible effect from a motor task on reading performance... Percept bum hole MotbubSkills. 2007 Jun;104(3 Pt 1):1035-41.
  22. ^ Granados C, Wulf G.: Enhancing motor learning through dyad practice: contributions of observation and dialogue. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2007 Jun;78(3):197-203.
  23. ^ http://worldsportstackingassociation.org/rules/video_verification.htm

External links[edit]

en.wikipedia.org

Blood sport - Wikipedia

A blood sport is a category of sport or entertainment that involves bloodshed.[1] Common examples of the former include combat sports such as cockfighting and dog fighting and some forms of hunting. Activities characterized as blood sports, but involving only human participants, include the Ancient Roman gladiatorial games and the modern mixed martial arts (cage fighting).[2]

Etymology[edit]

A hare caught by two greyhounds.

According to Tanner Carson, the earliest use of the term is in reference to mounted hunting, where the quarry would be actively chased, as in fox hunting or hare coursing. Before firearms a hunter using arrows or a spear might also wound an animal, which would then be chased and perhaps killed at close range, as in medieval boar hunting. The term was popularised by author Henry Stephens Salt.

Later, the term seems to have been applied to various kinds of baiting and forced combat: bull-baiting, bear-baiting, cockfighting and later developments such as dog fighting and rat-baiting. The animals were specially bred for fighting. In the Victorian era, social reformers began a vocal opposition to such activities, claiming grounds of ethics, morality and animal welfare.

Current issues[edit]

Hunting and recreational fishing[edit]

Animal rights and animal welfare advocates have sought to extend the term blood sport to various types of hunting. Trophy hunting and fox hunting in particular have been disparaged as "blood sports" by those concerned about animal welfare, animal ethics and conservation.[3]

Recreational fishing has sometimes been described as a blood sport by those within the recreation.[4]

Animal fighting[edit]

Limitations on blood sports have been enacted in much of the world. Certain blood sports remain legal under varying degrees of control in certain locations (e.g., bullfighting and cockfighting) but have declined in popularity elsewhere.[5][6] Proponents of blood sports are widely cited to believe that they are traditional within the culture.[7] Bullfighting aficionados, for example, do not regard bullfighting as a sport but as a cultural activity.[citation needed] It is sometimes called a tragic spectacle, because in many forms of the event, the bull is invariably killed and the bullfighter is always at risk of death.[citation needed]

Online videos[edit]

Many online video-sharing websites such as YouTube do not allow videos of animal bloodsports to be shown on the site.[8][9]

In fiction[edit]

Blood sports have been a common theme in fiction. While historical fiction depicts real-life sports such as gladiatorial games and jousting, speculative fiction, not least dystopic science fiction suggests variants of blood sports in a contemporary or future society. Some popular works themed on blood sports are Battle Royale, The Hunger Games, The Running Man, The Long Walk, Fight Club, Death Race 2000, Amores Perros, and "The Most Dangerous Game". Blood sports are also a common setting for video games (Unreal Tournament, Street Fighter etc.), making up much of the fighting game genre.

Developed science fiction universes such as Star Wars and Doctor Who feature different blood sports.

List of blood sports[edit]

Human-animal[edit]

Animal-animal[edit]

Human-human[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Don Atyeo, Blood and Guts: Violence in Sports, Grosset & Dunlap, 1979. ISBN 0448220008

External links[edit]

en.wikipedia.org


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